Surgical versus percutaneous catheter placement for peritoneal dialysis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

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Background: No consensus currently exists regarding the optimal approach for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement. We aimed to compare the outcomes of percutaneous and surgical peritoneal dialysis catheter placement.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases (end-of-search date: August 29th, 2020). We included studies comparing percutaneous (blind, under fluoroscopic/ultrasound guidance, and "half-perc") and surgical peritoneal dialysis catheter placement (open and laparoscopic) in terms of their infectious complications (peritonitis, tunnel/exit-site infections), mechanical complications (leakage, inflow/outflow obstruction, migration, hemorrhage, hernia, bowel perforation) and long-term outcomes (malfunction, removal, replacement, surgery required, and mortality).

Results: Thirty-four studies were identified, including thirty-two observational studies (twenty-six retrospective and six prospective) and two randomized controlled trials. Percutaneous placement was associated with significantly lower rates of tunnel/exit-site infection [relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.91], catheter migration (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49, 0.95), and catheter removal (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88). The 2-week and 4-week rates of early tunnel/exit-site infection were also lower in the percutaneous group (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.93 and RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27-0.63, respectively). No statistically significant difference was observed regarding other outcomes, including catheter survival and mechanical complications.

Conclusion: Overall, the quality of published literature on the field of peritoneal dialysis catheter placement is poor, with a small percentage of studies being randomized clinical trials. Percutaneous peritoneal dialysis catheter placement is a safe procedure and may result in fewer complications, such as tunnel/exit-site infections, and catheter migration, compared to surgical placement.

Protocol registration: PROSPERO CRD42020154951.

Keywords: Laparoscopic catheter placement; Open surgical catheter placement; Percutaneous catheter placement; Peritoneal dialysis catheter.