Anterior Bilateral Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation: A Safe Route for Apical Repair

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Objectives: Traditionally, sacrospinous ligament fixation is performed unilaterally with a posterior dissection for correction of apical vaginal prolapse. There is limited information on alternative techniques including bilateral application and use of anterior vaginal dissection for this procedure. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anatomic and perioperative outcomes in women who have undergone bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation through an anterior approach.

Methods: This cohort represents women in our prospective repository who underwent anterior approach bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation between September 2011 and June 2014. Concomitant procedures were performed as indicated. Pelvic organ prolapse quantification points were measured preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively and were compared. Perioperative outcome measures and adverse events were also analyzed.

Results: In this cohort, 144 women underwent anterior approach to bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation. The patients' mean age was 57.8 ± 10.9 years, and the average body mass index was 29.6 ± 5.8 kg/m. In patients who underwent anterior approach bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation, points Aa, Ba, C, Gh, Ap, and Bp remained at stage I or less when compared with pelvic organ prolapse quantification measurements at the baseline. Perioperative and postoperative complications were minimal, with 1 (0.7%) patient requiring a blood transfusion and 3 (2%) patients suffered from intraoperative lower urinary tract injuries, none of which were attributable to the sacrospinous fixation part of the procedure.

Conclusions: Anterior approach bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation is a safe and effective procedure for reestablishing apical support in a patient with apical vaginal prolapse.