Impact of cardiovascular comorbidities on inpatient mortality in patients hospitalized with neutropenic fever

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Concomitant cardiovascular comorbidities in patients with cancer are not uncommon. There is limited data on the impact of cardiovascular comorbidities on in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with neutropenic fever.


This is a retrospective cohort study using the 2016 NIS database of adults (> 18 years old) hospitalized for neutropenic fever as the primary diagnosis. The primary outcome studied is all-cause mortality in patients with neutropenic fever. ICD-10-CM codes were used to identify cardiovascular risk factors including smoking; hyperlipidemia; peripheral vascular diseases; hypertension; history of cerebrovascular disease or transient ischemic attack; and cardiovascular morbidities including atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to adjust for cofounders.


A total of 28,060 patients were admitted with neutropenic fever in 2016. Average age was 43.9 ± 1.7 years, and 49.3% were females. Among the cases identified, 205 patients died during hospitalization with an overall in-hospital mortality of 0.7%. Atrial fibrillation was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 3.01; CI 1.38 to 6.57; p = 0.005) as was congestive heart failure (OR 3.15; CI 1.08 to 10.14; p = 0.049).


Atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure were associated with higher inpatient mortality in patients with neutropenic fever. Identifying the risk factors for increased mortality in patients with neutropenic fever is important for risk stratification and guiding clinicians in taking therapeutic decisions in this set of patients.