Using urinary biomarkers to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery
Surgery; Nephrology; Medicine
Prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is unreliable through the use of serum creatinine or urinary output alone. Cell cycle arrest urinary biomarkers insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP2) provide early detection of kidney stress and possibly AKI. We sought to determine whether therapeutic interventions driven by elevated urinary biomarkers (UB) reduces post-cardiac surgery stage 2/3 AKI.
A quality improvement initiative based on UB was undertaken in all adult on-pump cardiac surgical patients with a preoperative serum creatinine level ≤2.0 mg/dL. A UB score the morning after cardiac surgery that was considered positive for kidney stress (≥0.3 [ng/mL]2/1000) triggered activation of a multidisciplinary acute kidney response team (AKRT) with implementation of a predefined staged protocol, including targeted goal-directed fluid management, liberalized transfusion thresholds, continued invasive hemodynamic monitoring and its optimization in the intensive care unit, and avoidance of nephrotoxins. We compared the incidence of stage 2/3 AKI before (pre-UB) versus after (post-UB) implementation of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes quality improvement initiative. Standardized, protocolized, evidence-based care pathways were used pre-UB.
The incidence of stage 2/3 AKI was compared in 435 pre-UB patients and 412 post-UB patients. Fifty-five percent of the post-UB patients had a moderate or high UB score (≥0.3 [ng/mL]2/1000). Ten patients (2.30%) had stage 2/3 AKI pre-UB, compared with 1 patient (0.24%) post-UB, a relative reduction of 89% (P = .01). The total and postoperative lengths of stay, cost, mortality, and readmissions were similar in the 2 groups. The negative predictive value for AKI of UB <0.3 [ng/mL]2/1000 was 100%.
The routine measurement of UB and subsequent activation of an AKRT are useful post-cardiac surgery therapeutic adjuncts. They are associated with early detection of kidney stress, allowing for targeted proactive intervention, and a significant decrease in postoperative stage 2/3 AKI without increases in cost or length of stay.
Engelman DT, Crisafi C, Germain M, Greco B, Nathanson BH, Engelman RM, Schwann TA. Using urinary biomarkers to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019 Oct 17.