Trends in Aortic Valve Replacement Procedures Between 2009 and 2015: Has Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Made a Difference?

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Article, Peer-reviewed

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This study reports trends in volume and adverse events associated with isolated aortic valve procedures performed in Medicare beneficiaries between 2009 and 2015.


This retrospective study used the annual fiscal year Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file to identify all Medicare beneficiaries undergoing an isolated aortic valve procedure. Outcome measures included three mortality rates and nine in-hospital adverse events. The final study population consisted of 233,660 hospitalizations.


During the study period, Medicare beneficiaries undergoing an aortic valve procedure increased from 22,076 to 49,362, for an average annual growth rate of 14.45%. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries grew from 10.7 in 2012 to 41.1 in 2015. Overall, in-hospital mortality rates, cumulative 30-day mortality rates, and 90-day postdischarge mortality rates declined annually during the study period. However, the 90-day mortality rate for TAVR was nearly double the rate for the tissue surgical aortic valve replacement group. Nearly 68% of Medicare beneficiaries experienced at least one in-hospital adverse event during their index hospitalization. Medicare beneficiaries undergoing TAVR had the lowest observed adverse events rates among the aortic valve procedures in 2015.


The total number of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing isolated aortic valve procedures increased from 47.5 to 88.9 per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries during the study period. Aortic valve procedures increased significantly during this study period primarily due to the increase in TAVR, with clinical outcomes improving as well. Although long-term outcomes of TAVR are still under investigation, these results are promising.