Found in transition: applying milestones to three unique discharge curricula

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Article, Peer-reviewed

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Introduction. A safe and effective transition from hospital to post-acute care is a complex and important physician competency. Milestones and Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA) form the new educational rubric in Graduate Medical Education Training. "A safe and effective discharge from the hospital" is an EPA ripe for educational innovation. Methods. The authors collaborated in a qualitative process called mapping to define 22 of 142 Internal Medicine (IM) curricular milestones related to the transition of care. Fifty-five participant units at an Association for Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) workshop prioritized the milestones, using a validated ranking process called Q-sort. We analyzed the Q-sort results, which rank the milestones in order of priority. We then applied this ranking to three innovative models of training IM residents in the transitions of care: Simulation (S), Discharge Clinic Feedback (DCF) and TRACER (T). Results. We collected 55 Q-sort rankings from particpants at the APDIM workshop. We then identified which milestones are a focus of the three innovative models of training in the transition of care: Simulation = 5 of 22 milestones, Discharge Clinic Feedback = 9 of 22 milestones, and TRACER = 7 of 22 milestones. Milestones identified in each innovation related to one of the top 8 prioritized milestones 75% of the time; thus, more frequently than the milestones with lower priority. Two milestones are shared by all three curricula: Utilize patient-centered education and Ensure succinct written communication. Two other milestones are shared by two curricula: Manage and coordinate care transitions across multiple delivery systems and Customize care in the context of the patient's preferences. If you combine the three innovations, all of the top 8 milestones are included. Discussion. The milestones give us a context to share individual innovations and to compare and contrast using a standardized frame. We demonstrate that the three unique discharge curricula in aggregate capture all of the highest prioritized milestones for this discharge EPA.