A multicenter, open-label, observational study of testosterone gel (1%) in the treatment of adolescent boys with klinefelter syndrome or anorchia

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To assess the safety and clinical outcomes of 6-month treatment with testosterone gel 1% therapy in adolescent boys with primary hypogonadism resulting from Klinefelter syndrome (KS) or anorchia.


This was a subgroup analysis of a multicenter, open-label study of adolescent boys (N = 86) with delayed puberty who received .5-5.0 g testosterone gel 1% daily for ≤6 months. Adolescent boys 12-17 years of age with KS (n = 21) or anorchia (n = 8), bone age ≥10.5 years, and baseline growth data ≥6 months were included in this analysis. Serum hormone levels (total/free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, dihydrotestosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol) were measured using validated assays. Safety was assessed through adverse events (AEs).


At baseline, patients with KS were taller, weighed more, and had higher total testosterone levels (mean 174 vs. 19 ng/dL) than patients with anorchia. At 6 months, total and free testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels increased 1.8- to 2.3-fold in the KS group and eight- to 10-fold in anorchia patients. Estradiol levels increased 1.9-fold in the anorchia group and 1.4-fold in the KS group after treatment. No clinically significant changes were noted for luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in either group. Cough was the most common AE (eight of 29), followed by acne and headache (both four of 29). One anorchia and two KS patients discontinued prematurely.


Once-daily testosterone gel application increased serum testosterone levels into the pubertal range and maintained pubertal testosterone levels during 6-month treatment. In this study, testosterone gel 1% raised testosterone levels and was associated with cough as the most common AE.