IL-10 Differentially Promotes Mast Cell Responsiveness to IL-33, Resulting in Enhancement of Type 2 Inflammation and Suppression of Neutrophilia

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Mast cells (MCs) play critical roles in the establishment of allergic diseases. We recently demonstrated an unexpected, proinflammatory role for IL-10 in regulating MC responses. IL-10 enhanced MC activation and promoted IgE-dependent responses during food allergy. However, whether these effects extend to IgE-independent stimuli is not clear. In this article, we demonstrate that IL-10 plays a critical role in driving IL-33-mediated MC responses. IL-10 stimulation enhanced MC expansion and degranulation, ST2 expression, IL-13 production, and phospho-relA upregulation in IL-33-treated cells while suppressing TNF-α. These effects were partly dependent on endogenous IL-10 and further amplified in MCs coactivated with both IL-33 and IgE/Ag. IL-10's divergent effects also extended in vivo. In a MC-dependent model of IL-33-induced neutrophilia, IL-10 treatment enhanced MC responsiveness, leading to suppression of neutrophils and decreased TNF-α. In contrast, during IL-33-induced type 2 inflammation, IL-10 priming exacerbated MC activity, resulting in MC recruitment to various tissues, enhanced ST2 expression, induction of hypothermia, recruitment of eosinophils, and increased MCPT-1 and IL-13 levels. Our data elucidate an important role for IL-10 as an augmenter of IL-33-mediated MC responses, with implications during both allergic diseases and other MC-dependent disorders. IL-10 induction is routinely used as a prognostic marker of disease improvement. Our data suggest instead that IL-10 can enhance ST2 responsiveness in IL-33-activated MCs, with the potential to both aggravate or suppress disease severity depending on the inflammatory context.