Catheter-directed thrombolysis versus thrombectomy for submassive and massive pulmonary embolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Introduction: Controversy surrounds the optimal therapy for submassive and massive pulmonary embolism (PE). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) versus surgical and catheter-based thrombectomy in patients with submassive and massive PE.
Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar for studies comparing outcomes of CDT versus thrombectomy in submassive and massive PE. Studies were identified and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. A random effects model was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, procedural complications, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmissions, and right ventricle/left ventricle (RV/LV) ratio improvement.
Results: Eight observational studies with 1403 patients were included, of whom 50.0 % received CDT. Compared to thrombectomy, CDT was associated with significantly lower in-hospital mortality (RR 0.62; 95 % CI 0.43-0.89; p = 0.01) and similar rates of major bleeding (p = 0.61), blood transfusion (p = 0.41), stroke (p = 0.41), and atrial fibrillation (p = 0.71). The hospital and ICU LOS, 30-day readmissions, and degree of RV/LV ratio improvement were similar between the two strategies (all p > 0.1). In subgroup analyses, in-hospital mortality was similar between CDT and catheter-based thrombectomy (p = 0.48) but lower with CDT compared with surgical thrombectomy (p = 0.01).
Conclusions: In patients with submassive and massive PE, CDT was associated with similar in-hospital mortality compared to catheter-based thrombectomy, but lower in-hospital mortality compared to surgical thrombectomy. Procedural complications, LOS, 30-day readmissions, and RV/LV ratio improvement were similar between CDT and any thrombectomy. Randomized controlled trials are indicated to confirm our findings.
Keywords: Catheter-directed thrombolysis; Pulmonary embolism; Surgery; Thrombectomy; Thrombolytic.
Ismayl M, Ismayl A, Hamadi D, Aboeata A, Goldsweig AM. Catheter-directed thrombolysis versus thrombectomy for submassive and massive pulmonary embolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2023 Oct 11:S1553-8389(23)00832-1. doi: 10.1016/j.carrev.2023.10.002. Epub ahead of print.