Infective Endocarditis Risk with Melody versus Sapien Valves Following Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Author Department

Cardiology; Medicine

Document Type

Article, Peer-reviewed

Publication Date



Background: Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) is an effective non-surgical treatment method for patients with right ventricle outflow tract dysfunction. The Medtronic Melody and the Edwards Sapien are the two valves approved for use in TPVI. Since TPVI patients are typically younger, even a modest annual incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) is significant. Several previous studies have shown a growing risk of IE after TPVI. There is uncertainty regarding the overall incidence of IE and differences in the risk of IE between the valves.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases from inception to 1 January 2023 using the search terms 'pulmonary valve implantation', 'TPVI', or 'PPVI'. The primary outcome was the pooled incidence of IE following TPVI in Melody and Sapien valves and the difference in incidence between Sapien and Melody valves. Fixed effect and random effect models were used depending on the valve. Meta-regression with random effects was conducted to test the difference in the incidence of IE between the two valves.

Results: A total of 22 studies (including 10 Melody valve studies, 8 Sapien valve studies, and 4 studies that included both valves (572 patients that used the Sapien valve and 1395 patients that used the Melody valve)) were used for the final analysis. Zero IE incidence following TPVI was reported by eight studies (66.7%) that utilized Sapien valves compared to two studies (14.3%) that utilized Melody valves. The pooled incidence of IE following TPVI with Sapien valves was 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9% to 5.13%) compared to 8.5% (95% CI: 4.8% to 15.2%) following TPVI with Melody valves. Results of meta-regression indicated that the Sapien valve had a 79.6% (95% CI: 24.2% to 94.4%, p = 0.019; R2 = 34.4) lower risk of IE incidence compared to the Melody valve.

Conclusions: The risk of IE following TPVI differs significantly. A prudent valve choice in favor of Sapien valves to lower the risk of post-TPVI endocarditis may be beneficial.

Keywords: Melody valve; PPVI; Sapien valve; TPVI; infective endocarditis; meta-analysis; transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation.