The changing landscape of interventional cardiology: A survival guide in the era of health system consolidation

Author Department

Cardiology; Medicine

Document Type

Article, Peer-reviewed

Publication Date



Practice environments for interventional cardiologists have evolved dramatically and now include small independent practices, large cardiology groups, multispecialty groups, and large integrated health systems. Increasingly, cardiologists are employed by hospitals or health systems. Data from MedAxiom and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) demonstrate an exponential increase in the percentage of cardiologists in employed positions from 10% in 2009 to 87% in 2020. This white paper explores these profound changes, considers their impact on interventional cardiologists, and offers guidance on how interventional cardiologists can best navigate this challenging environment. Finally, the paper offers a potential model to improve the employed physician experience through greater physician involvement in decision making, which may increase jobs satisfaction.