Aortic valve infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus pyogenes : A case report

Author Department

Internal Medicine; Medicine; Infectious Diseases

Document Type

Article, Peer-reviewed

Publication Date



Group A Streptococcus is a common cause of pharyngitis, scarlet fever, glomerulonephritis, and various skin infections. However, there have only been a few reports of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) associated with infective endocarditis. We present a case of a 31-year-old male who presented to the hospital with a few days of weakness and myalgias after recently receiving treatment with azithromycin for GAS pharyngitis as an outpatient. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit in septic shock from Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus bacteremia and acute hypoxic respiratory failure. He was found to have new severe aortic insufficiency from infective endocarditis. He underwent urgent partial aortic valve annuloplasty reconstruction and incision and drainage of root abscess with intraoperative cultures growing gram positive cocci consistent with GAS. The majority of cases of infective endocarditis are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, virdians group Streptococci and Streptococcus gallolyticus, while Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes have the lowest prevalence of infective endocarditis. Penicillin remains the first line treatment for GAS pharyngitis. However, in cases of severe penicillin allergy, macrolides should be avoided given the increasing rate of macrolide resistance GAS strains. This case emphasizes the importance of using beta-lactams as first line therapy for GAS pharyngitis to avoid harmful complications and infection recurrence.

Keywords: Bacteremia; Group A Streptococcus; Infective endocarditis; Macrolide resistance; Penicillin allergy.