Nanoreporter for Real-Time Monitoring of Inflammasome Activity and Targeted Therapy

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Article, Peer-reviewed

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Inflammasome activation is associated with a myriad of inflammatory diseases. However, existing methods provides a limited understanding of spatiotemporal kinetics of inflammasome activation, with restricted scope for early detection of associated treatment efficacy. This limitation offers an opportunity for the development of biocompatible in-vivo inflammasome monitoring tools with translational prospects. To achieve this, they report developing a pair of lipid-based nanoparticle systems, a reporter nanoparticle consisting of a caspase-1 activatable probe alone, and a theranostic nanoparticle combining the probe with an inflammasome-inhibiting drug. This biocompatible platform enhances the probe's residence time in circulation by preventing its opsonization and allowing its sustained release over time. Their results demonstrate the specificity of reporter nanoparticles towards caspase-1 activity and provides early-on monitoring of inflammasome activation both in-vitro as well as in-vivo. Additionally, the delivery of disulfiram, an inflammasome-inhibiting drug, along with reporter probe using theranostic nanoparticles enables real-time tracking of treatment efficacy in the gouty-arthritis inflammatory model. In summary, they report an unparalleled pair of the inflammasome-associated reporter and theranostic platforms suited not only for diagnostic applications but can also detect inflammasome-targeted treatment efficiency in real-time. These findings establish two novel, sensitive nanotools for non-invasive evaluation of inflammasome-targeted immunotherapy.

Keywords: Caspase-1; diagnostics; gasdermin-D; gouty-arthritis; inflammasome; theranostics.