Cardiovascular Predictors of Intracerebral Hematoma Expansion

Author Department

Internal Medicine; Medicine

Document Type

Article, Peer-reviewed

Publication Date



Background: There is limited evidence on the effect and relevance of cardiovascular parameters on the cerebrovascular system when an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs. While recent studies evaluating this relationship are conflicting, one evaluating the effect of systolic cardiac function on clinical outcomes in ICH patients, found low cardiac ejection fractions to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. Our primary objective was to study such correlations and identify various cardiovascular disease states that may be associated with hematoma expansion.

Methods: This is an IRB-approved single-center retrospective study utilizing our institutional "Get with the Guidelines"-Stroke registry between 2013 and 2017. Patients included were older than 18 years of age, admitted with an acute ICH, and had an echocardiogram during their hospitalization. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analyses were used to identify cardiovascular predictors of hematoma expansion.

Results: Two-hundred forty-nine patients were identified from our GWTG-S registry that met initial inclusion criteria. Of these patients, a history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (p = 0.015), presence of aortic stenosis (AS) on the echocardiogram (p = 0.025), and a positive spot sign on the CT-angiogram (CTA) of the head (p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with ICH expansion. Both a history of hypertension and elevated blood pressure on presentation were not significant predictors. Additionally, patients with a history of congestive heart failure had decreased odds of hematoma expansion (p = 0.027).

Conclusion: This exploratory study highlights potential novel cardiac predictors of hematoma expansion, including PAD and AS, which warrant further study. Larger prospective studies are needed to further investigate such associations to ultimately optimize cardio-cerebral health.

Keywords: Aortic stenosis; Cardiac risk factors; Hematoma expansion; Intracerebral hemorrhage.