Molecular assessment of testicular adult granulosa cell tumor demonstrates significant differences when compared to ovarian counterparts

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Testicular adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a rare type of sex-cord stromal tumor that affects patients of a wide age range and has the potential for late metastasis. In the testis, the diagnosis of AGCTs often requires the exclusion of other more common types of sex-cord stromal tumors. Immunohistochemistry is of limited utility, being used mostly to confirm sex-cord lineage and to exclude other entities when morphology is not typical. Unlike ovarian AGCTs, which are molecularly homogeneous and harbor a specific activating FOXL2 mutation (c.7558C > T p.C134W) in >90% of cases, the molecular characteristics of testicular AGCTs remain largely unknown. In the current study, we analyzed 13 testicular AGCTs diagnosed at multiple institutions using massively parallel DNA sequencing to evaluate single nucleotide variants, copy number alterations, and structural variants. In all, 10/13 cases were sequenced successfully. Notably, the FOXL2 c.7558C > T (p.C134W) mutation was identified in only a single case (1/10, 10%). The remaining cases were molecularly heterogeneous, with largely nonrecurrent genetic variants. Putative driver events in individual cases included a well-characterized gain-of-function NRAS mutation, as well as inactivation of ATM and TP53, among others. The only highly recurrent finding was single copy loss of 22q (7/10 cases, 70%). Comparatively, the frequencies of FOXL2 c.7558C > T (p.C134W) and 22q loss in 12 metastatic ovarian AGCTs identified in our database were 92% (11/12) and 42% (5/12), respectively. The results of the present study suggest that testicular AGCTs are different from their ovarian counterparts in that they appear to be molecularly heterogeneous and only rarely harbor FOXL2 mutations.