S100P as a marker for poor survival and advanced stage in gallbladder carcinoma

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Aims: Gallbladder carcinomas usually present in advanced stages and has a dismal prognosis despite modern imaging techniques and aggressive surgical intervention. Identification of biologic markers for early diagnosis and improved therapeutic strategies is thus of paramount importance. S100P has been identified in a variety of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary systems, but it is not yet known if S100P expression is associated with clinically-relevant characteristics of gall bladder carcinoma. The aims of the present study were: 1) to investigate the relationship between S100P expression and histological type, grade, tumor-node-metastasis stage, presence of vascular invasion, perineural invasion and necrosis; and 2) to evaluate for any S100P-defined difference in the risk for tumor recurrence or death.

Method: Immunostains for S100P were performed on 4 tissue microarray blocks containing 91 cases of gall bladder carcinoma.

Result: The intensity of S100P staining was significantly associated with pathological T stage 4 (p = 0. 0238). Staining intensity ≥3 in ≥25% tumor cells was associated with pathological T stage 4 (p = 0.0005). A higher S100P immunoreactivity score (IRS) was significantly associated with higher TNM stage (p = 0.0341). Age (p = 0.0485), presence of vascular invasion (p = 0.0359), pathological T stage (p = 0.0291) and TNM stage (p = 0.0153) were significantly associated with tumor recurrence. Intense S100P reactivity was associated with decreased overall survival [hazard ratio = 9.614; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.873-49.338; p = 0.0067].

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that S100P over-expression is a potential prognostic marker for gall bladder carcinoma and is significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and poorer survival.

Keywords: Gall bladder carcinoma; Histopathology; Prognosis; S100P; Survival; Tissue microarray.