â€¢ Based on strong research evidence, in countries where poliomyelitis has been eliminated, GBS is the most common cause of acquired paralysis in children. (9) â€¢ Based on strong research evidence, GBS describes a spectrum of disorders caused by an autoimmune reaction against peripheral nerve components, including the myelin sheath and the axon. (10)(11) â€¢ Based on strong research evidence, GBS usually is preceded by a bacterial or viral infection, less likely by vaccination in the 1 to 4 weeks before onset. The strongest relationship is with infection by C jejuni. (12)(13) â€¢ Based on strong research evidence, GBS in children most often presents with symmetrical ascending paralysis, diminished or absent reflexes, and often severe pain. Pain may lead to a delay in diagnosis. (2) (3)(9)(14) â€¢ Based on strong research evidence, the progressive phase peaks in 7 to 14 days and can lead to various levels of weakness, from abnormal gait to total paralysis, cranial nerve weakness, pain, respiratory compromise, and autonomic instability. (2) â€¢ Based on some research evidence and consensus, children require hospitalization and often intensive care until their condition stabilizes because of significant risk of respiratory compromise and autonomic instability. (15) â€¢ Based on strong research evidence in adults and some research evidence in children, IVIG and plasma exchange hasten recovery from GBS in patients with impaired ability to ambulate. (4)(6) â€¢ Based primarily on consensus, IVIG is the treatment of choice in children with GBS. (6)(9)(15) â€¢ Based on strong research evidence, the prognosis for full functional recovery in childhood GBS is excellent. (2)(8)(9).
Rosen B. Guillain-Barré syndrome Pediatr Rev 2012 Apr;33(4):164-70.